Berries, Sage & Seeds

Q. I’m going to replace several struggling roses. Should I plant patent or non-patent varieties? I’ve been told that the patent varieties are better performers than the non-patent?

A. The Plant Patent Act of 1930 introduced intellectual property or patent rights for plants. It allows plant breeders to recover their development costs from “asexually propagated” plants, aka roots, divisions and cuttings and not seeds. This includes fruit trees, roses, and today ornamental trees and shrubs. Nearly half of the 3,010 plant patents issued between 1930 and 1970 were for roses. Jackson & Perkins, Armstrong Roses, Weeks, and Conard-Pyle contribute to a staggering share of U.S. plant patents. Anyone who wishes to propagate and distribute the variety must purchase a patent tag for each plant from the hybridizer. Although we see new varieties every year, they are not developed over night. A new introduction is the result of many, many years of trial and error. The patent tag cost varies greatly between varieties. It could be anywhere from a quarter to several dollars. After seventeen years, the patent expires and it becomes a non-patent variety. Now, anyone can reproduce it free of charge. The rose is the same whether it’s a non-patent or patent variety. Newer rose varieties are more resistant to diseases than the old timers. Today, hybridizers are cross breeding resistant varieties from previous years for the new varieties of the 21st century. I’m always curious as to the parentage of each years’ new introductions. It gives me a clue as to how a particular variety will perform in our varied microclimates. The rose care product of today will effectively control the rose diseases so I’d use some other characteristic as my primary focus in selecting varieties.

Q. I’m going to purchase several Blackberry and Raspberry plants to grow on a fence. How much sun do they require, do I feed them when they are transplanted and will they bear fruit this coming summer or next summer.

A. Blackberry and Raspberries are a wonderful addition as long as the plants are contained; hence, they are not advisable for every garden. They require six hours of sunlight per day, April through October. However, you do not want to plant any berry vines on a fence that is also the property line. It can be an expensive nightmare dealing with a neighbor(s) disputes as the vines will intrude next door. Berry vines are aggressive growers with above and below ground stems or rhizomes. Instead, grow the vines on a separate trellis structure that is four to six feet off any fence line. This way you can head off the problems before it’s too late. If possible, I would place the trellis in a north south direction. This will allow the berries to ripen on both sides of the vines. Blackberry and Raspberry vines should produce fruit next year as the berries are produced on the second year canes. The vines are best pruned after you finish harvesting all the berries. The fruiting canes are cut off at the ground. You replace them on the trellis with the best of the new shoots growing from the base.  All the other new growth is removed. You need to be diligent with pruning off the basal shoots otherwise the vines can get out of hand. Again, the berries will only develop on the second year canes. At the time of planting, I would add Starter Fertilizer along with amending the soil with homemade compost or soil conditioner.

Q. The cold has damaged my Mexican Sage plants. Is there a right or wrong time to prune them back? I’d like to maintain them year round as they provide a colorful, feeding environment for Hummingbirds

A. It’s not unusual for Mexican Sage to turn brown from the winter cold. I’d expect this to happen every year. My pruning preference is to wait until the end of February or the beginning of March to prune them; however, it can be done at any time weather permitting. Mexican Sage produces all of its new growth from the base of the plant. It produces no lateral branches and blooms on the terminal end of each shoot. It should be back in bloom around Memorial Day and continue through the first cold night. Thus, I’d prune it off at the ground with a pair of hand or electric hedge shears. You should also clean out all of the fallen debris that has gather during the past growing season.  And in March, feed them with Doctor Earth Organic All Purpose Plant Food to encourage the new growth. This feeding should be sufficient for the entire year.